National identity is not a static concept. It is no longer something that is acquired by birth alone. It is also a product that can be bought, sold or taken away. ‘Economic citizenship’ for example, grants access to a country irrespective of immigration rules on the condition that you invest there. African, South American, but also European countries with debt sell such ‘golden visas’ as a luxury product for the very rich.
Refugees have to pay quite large sums of money to be smuggled across national borders. On the website Liquid Citizenship Femke Herregraven has collected data on citizenship from around the world. It shows where you can buy a passport or obtain citizenship through naturalization, human trafficking or political asylum.